Case Study:

Tissue Damage & Cytotoxicity



What was the challenge?

A drug may cause unwanted damage to target or non-target tissue. A drug may also be cytotoxic to target or non-target cells at certain doses. Tissue damage or cytotoxicity is a major driver immune response. While cytotoxicity is an important concern in drug validation, tissue damage on a chronic basis that can generate immune driven organ specific or systemic  conditions should also be a concern in drug research. There are many known immune-mediated diseases that are caused by chronic drug treatment, for example, interstitial lung disease caused by amiodarone.




Amiodarone effect on immunomodulation

Ciprofloxacin ug/ml

Paracetamol uM

Azithromycin ug/ml


Can we assess tissue damage caused by commonly used drugs and if such damage is immunogenic?


Considering lung cells as one of the most vascular cells that are frequently exposed to drugs and immunogens we modelled an A549  tissue system for drug-induced damage experiment. A549 lung cells were challenged with amiodarone, azithromycin, paracetamol and ciprofloxacin and tested for cell death and imuunomodulatory effects.


Amiodarone and azithromycin were damaging to lung cells, which were also stimulatory for dendritic cells.

Immune Modelling & Experimental Design

Immune Risk Assessment

Tissue Damage & Cytotoxicity

Immuno-Oncology & Immunotoxicity

Inflammation & Systemic Diseases

Vaccines, Drug Delivery & Transfection

Signalling Pathways

Looking for a tailored solution?

Of course, there is no one-size-fits-all solution for most studies. Immundnz specializes in developing tailored assays to enable you to challenge the status quo in your research.


Some of our popular assays

To accelerate your research and deliver high-quality data, Immundnz offers a broad spectrum of standardized, proven assays that are readily available.

M1/M2 Polarisation

M1/M2 are important in studies of various therapeutic areas and biological pathways.



Phagocytosis is an immunologic mechanism involved in apoptosis, necrosis, infection and tumour conditions mediated by leukocytes like macrophages, DCs, and neutrophils. 

Cytokine Release Assay

Cytokine release assay (CRA) is vital in biopharmaceutical discovery and development and life science research.


Dendritic Cell Maturation

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the star antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of myeloid or haematopoietic origin that play a vital role between the innate and adaptive immune systems. 


T Cell Differentiation

The T cell proliferation assay can be used to assess modulation of the T cell response by (immunomodulatory) compounds.


Immune & Protein-Based

We perform various immunologic and protein-based assays that are needed in your research or drug development.


Case Studies

Immundnz has performed many case studies, some of which are described here. You can always reach out to us for other examples of projects we have done.


Immundnz shares insights on in vitro immunology research for drug discovery on its blog, which is regularly updated by experts in the field.