M1 & M2 Macrophage Polarization Assays

Macrophages are important myeloid cells of the immune system that are phagocytic and secrete cytokines that are instrumental in promoting a pro-inflammatory or regulatory immune response and interact with other immune effectors. The M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (regulatory) are the two main macrophage types that are considered important in drug biology studies.

In vitro M1/M2 Polarisation (macrophage) Studies

We derive macrophages from PBMCs or generate macrophages from a human monocytic cell line. These cells express CD14, CD11c, HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, SIRPa and can be used in mono or co-cultures to study drug effects for various macrophage related outcomes. The macrophages can be characterised by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and microscopy. The macrophages are easily transformed into inflammatory (M1) or regulatory type (M2) and can also demonstrate effective phagocytosis.



M1/M2 are important in studies of various therapeutic areas and biological pathways:

  • Tumour biology and oncology
  • Wound healing
  • Infection
  • Inflammatory and autoimmune conditions
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cell death and clearance

In recent years much attention has been given to macrophage based models in cancer studies.


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Immune Modelling & Experimental Design

Immune Risk Assessment

Tissue Damage & Cytotoxicity

Immuno-Oncology & Immunotoxicity

Inflammation & Systemic Diseases

Vaccines, Drug Delivery & Transfection

Signalling Pathways

Looking for a tailored solution?

Of course, there is no one-size-fits-all solution for most studies. Immundnz specializes in developing tailored assays to enable you to challenge the status quo in your research.


Some of our popular assays

To accelerate your research and deliver high-quality data, Immundnz offers a broad spectrum of standardized, proven assays that are readily available.

M1/M2 Polarisation

M1/M2 are important in studies of various therapeutic areas and biological pathways.



Phagocytosis is an immunologic mechanism involved in apoptosis, necrosis, infection and tumour conditions mediated by leukocytes like macrophages, DCs, and neutrophils. 

Cytokine Release Assay

Cytokine release assay (CRA) is vital in biopharmaceutical discovery and development and life science research.


Dendritic Cell Maturation

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the star antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of myeloid or haematopoietic origin that play a vital role between the innate and adaptive immune systems. 


T Cell Differentiation

The T cell proliferation assay can be used to assess modulation of the T cell response by (immunomodulatory) compounds.


Immune & Protein-Based

We perform various immunologic and protein-based assays that are needed in your research or drug development.


Case Studies

Immundnz has performed many case studies, some of which are described here. You can always reach out to us for other examples of projects we have done.


Immundnz shares insights on in vitro immunology research for drug discovery on its blog, which is regularly updated by experts in the field.