Case Study:

Signalling Pathways.



What was the challenge?

The immune system is very complex consisting of various immune cells of myeloid, lymphoid and other origins. The study of an immune response in understanding the efficacy or risk of a compound can involve complex signalling pathways of multiple cell types, receptors and/or cytokines/growth factors with the outcome of readouts that may not be interpreted through standard or single assays. Such studies require knowledge in signalling pathways and additional tests and methods to generate data to get a better meaning.


Expression of M2 and M1 marker) by macrophages can be result of downstream signalling of receptors:

IL-4R and IL-13R have different downstream signalling


To test the effect of a modified macrophage medium in inducing the differentiation of anti-tumour macrophages in cancer therapy.

Approach: in vitro macrophage polarisation assay

A modified macrophage M2-type polarising medium with varied growth factors designed to facilitate specific M2-inhibitors used in cancer therapy was tested in a human M2 polarisation model to test if the modified condition was better suited for the inhibitors targeting M2-differentiation.


The known inhibitors were effective individually, but when combined there was no effect. The density (%) and intensity (expression) of M2-markers were contrasting. These are due to events in downstream intracellular signalling.

Signal transduction studies are needed to better explain such complex but consistent readouts.

Immune Modelling & Experimental Design

Immune Risk Assessment

Tissue Damage & Cytotoxicity

Immuno-Oncology & Immunotoxicity

Inflammation & Systemic Diseases

Vaccines, Drug Delivery & Transfection

Signalling Pathways

Looking for a tailored solution?

Of course, there is no one-size-fits-all solution for most studies. Immundnz specializes in developing tailored assays to enable you to challenge the status quo in your research.


Some of our popular assays

To accelerate your research and deliver high-quality data, Immundnz offers a broad spectrum of standardized, proven assays that are readily available.

M1/M2 Polarisation

M1/M2 are important in studies of various therapeutic areas and biological pathways.



Phagocytosis is an immunologic mechanism involved in apoptosis, necrosis, infection and tumour conditions mediated by leukocytes like macrophages, DCs, and neutrophils. 

Cytokine Release Assay

Cytokine release assay (CRA) is vital in biopharmaceutical discovery and development and life science research.


Dendritic Cell Maturation

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the star antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of myeloid or haematopoietic origin that play a vital role between the innate and adaptive immune systems. 


T Cell Differentiation

The T cell proliferation assay can be used to assess modulation of the T cell response by (immunomodulatory) compounds.


Immune & Protein-Based

We perform various immunologic and protein-based assays that are needed in your research or drug development.


Case Studies

Immundnz has performed many case studies, some of which are described here. You can always reach out to us for other examples of projects we have done.


Immundnz shares insights on in vitro immunology research for drug discovery on its blog, which is regularly updated by experts in the field.