Case Study:

Primary VS Established Cell Lines.



What was the challenge?

In vitro models based on human cells are designed and used to generate human data that cannot be obtained in non-human in vivo models that by-pass translational issues, particularly in immunology. The research industry is currently largely dependent on the use of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Alternative established (cell lines) immune cells are also available. Primary and established human immune cells both have their advantages and disadvantages. The preference of either depends on the experimental design and the nature of query.




Cell line CRA was stimulated with PHA and M protein or S-G614 protein of SARS-CoV-2. Data was similar to PBMC-based CRA.


Immundnz has adapted the standard PBMC-based CRA to a cell line based CRA. A mixed population of myeloid and lymphoid cell lines representing immune cells in PBMCs has been formulated in specific ratios which can be stimulated with anti-CD3 antibody or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) to secrete cytokines associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS) or cytokine storm (CS).


(i)The cytokine release is consistent and the model can be stimulated with any other mitogens/immunogens.

(ii)Compared to low or high response in PBMC-based CRA, the cytokine levels are average and moderate.


To use a cytokine release assay (CRA) that provides a consistent control reference for cytokine secretion when stimulated with a known mitogen. PBMC based CRA is costly, time consuming and can be inconsistent due to donor-dependent variability.

Added Value:

(i)Cells can be customized to facilitate mechanistic studies



Immune Modelling & Experimental Design

Immune Risk Assessment

Tissue Damage & Cytotoxicity

Immuno-Oncology & Immunotoxicity

Inflammation & Systemic Diseases

Vaccines, Drug Delivery & Transfection

Signalling Pathways

Looking for a tailored solution?

Of course, there is no one-size-fits-all solution for most studies. Immundnz specializes in developing tailored assays to enable you to challenge the status quo in your research.


Some of our popular assays

To accelerate your research and deliver high-quality data, Immundnz offers a broad spectrum of standardized, proven assays that are readily available.

M1/M2 Polarisation

M1/M2 are important in studies of various therapeutic areas and biological pathways.



Phagocytosis is an immunologic mechanism involved in apoptosis, necrosis, infection and tumour conditions mediated by leukocytes like macrophages, DCs, and neutrophils. 

Cytokine Release Assay

Cytokine release assay (CRA) is vital in biopharmaceutical discovery and development and life science research.


Dendritic Cell Maturation

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the star antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of myeloid or haematopoietic origin that play a vital role between the innate and adaptive immune systems. 


T Cell Differentiation

The T cell proliferation assay can be used to assess modulation of the T cell response by (immunomodulatory) compounds.


Immune & Protein-Based

We perform various immunologic and protein-based assays that are needed in your research or drug development.


Case Studies

Immundnz has performed many case studies, some of which are described here. You can always reach out to us for other examples of projects we have done.


Immundnz shares insights on in vitro immunology research for drug discovery on its blog, which is regularly updated by experts in the field.