Case Study:

Immuno-Oncology & immuno-Toxicity.



What was the challenge?

Immuno oncology is a fast growing area in drug discovery. The immune system is seriously involved with tumours and cancer through macrophages, NK cells, T cells and dendritic cells. These cells and several immune checkpoints are major targets for intervention or cancer diagnosis. One of the issues in modulating conditions for immune cells for cancer treatment is that above certain threshold conditions may become cytotoxic for immune cells, giving rise to immunotoxicity. Research in immune oncology is coupled with immunotoxicity.


Effect of PI3K inhibition (LY294002) and MEK1/2 inhibition (trametinib) on polarisation of M1 macrophages:

HLA-DR expression

Effect of PI3K inhibition (LY294002) and MEK1/2 inhibition (trametinib) on viability of macrophages:

Trametinib induces immunotoxicity of M1 cells


To test the effect of an anti-cancer drug on M1 macrophage polarization and macrophage viability.


Macrophage polarisation is a target pathway in immuno oncology and promoting the inflammatory M1 type is a popular route. We tested a known anti-cancer drug Trametinib, an inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 in an in-house cell-line based macrophage polarisation model in its ability to promote the inflammatory M1 type macrophage and effect on cell viability. An inhibitor of PI3K, LY294002 was also used as a control.


  • Trametinib significantly increased the M1 profile of macrophages but also affected cell viability
  • LY294002 showed the opposite effects of trametinib

Added value:

Data on cell signaling pathway

Immune Modelling & Experimental Design

Immune Risk Assessment

Tissue Damage & Cytotoxicity

Immuno-Oncology & Immunotoxicity

Inflammation & Systemic Diseases

Vaccines, Drug Delivery & Transfection

Signalling Pathways

Looking for a tailored solution?

Of course, there is no one-size-fits-all solution for most studies. Immundnz specializes in developing tailored assays to enable you to challenge the status quo in your research.


Some of our popular assays

To accelerate your research and deliver high-quality data, Immundnz offers a broad spectrum of standardized, proven assays that are readily available.

M1/M2 Polarisation

M1/M2 are important in studies of various therapeutic areas and biological pathways.



Phagocytosis is an immunologic mechanism involved in apoptosis, necrosis, infection and tumour conditions mediated by leukocytes like macrophages, DCs, and neutrophils. 

Cytokine Release Assay

Cytokine release assay (CRA) is vital in biopharmaceutical discovery and development and life science research.


Dendritic Cell Maturation

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the star antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of myeloid or haematopoietic origin that play a vital role between the innate and adaptive immune systems. 


T Cell Differentiation

The T cell proliferation assay can be used to assess modulation of the T cell response by (immunomodulatory) compounds.


Immune & Protein-Based

We perform various immunologic and protein-based assays that are needed in your research or drug development.


Case Studies

Immundnz has performed many case studies, some of which are described here. You can always reach out to us for other examples of projects we have done.


Immundnz shares insights on in vitro immunology research for drug discovery on its blog, which is regularly updated by experts in the field.